IEC&A "The Electrical and Electronic Experts"
Investigative Engineering Consultants and Associates

IEC & Associates provides Electrical and Electronic Forensic and Investigative Engineering, Patent Infringement Analysis, Claim Chart Mapping, Reverse Engineering, Product Teardowns, Design Engineering, Failure Analysis, and Expert Witness Services for Attorneys, Insurance Companies, Industry and Government. We specialize in electrical and electronic systems, products and devices. Issues addressed include all aspects of the product or system under review or investigation, including design, fabrication, production, operation, failure analysis, reverse engineering, environmental conditions, agency compliance, safety, and product testing of electrical and electronic systems, products and devices as well as computer systems, hardware and software.

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We specialize in Forensic & Investigative Engineering, Patent Infringement Analysis and Expert Witness Services in the areas of Electrical & Electronic Systems, Products and Devices.

Mark's BLOG

Product Liability Discussion by David McCracken

As a Manufacturing Quality Consultant and Expert Witness, I encounter each of these 3 categories on a daily basis:

1) Manufacturing Defects - when the product departs from its intended design, even when all care was observed.

2) Design Defects - when a product’s design could have been altered to mitigate foreseeable risks of harm, especially when a failure to alter a design renders a product not reasonably safe.

3) Inadequate Instructions or Warning Defects - when foreseeable risks of harm could have been avoided by including reasonable instructions, and failure to do so renders a product not reasonably safe.

Manufacturing defects are a reality. The fact that most manufacturer's inspect and test their products to detect and reject any parts or products before they reach a customer's hands, does not eliminate all such manufacturing defects from getting through, with some causing unfortunate results.

Design defects are often prevented through good engineering and the use of DFMEA's (Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis). The reality is that even with very good engineering practices, DFMEA's do not always identify and properly quantify the real risks associated with potential failure modes and their sometimes-catastrophic effects.

Inadequate Instructions and Warning Defects abound. The level of details that is required for product usage instructions are dependent on the specific product and applicable industry standards. It's unfortunate that even with good design engineering and manufacturing process controls, quality controls, and additional quality assurance inspections and tests, that so many product liability and personal injury claims arise from a manufacturer's failure to provide adequate usage instructions and safety warnings.

Product liability and personal injury cases require careful forensic investigation and "hands-on" experience based experts to analyze and identify the root cause or causes were that lead to the direct cause of any product design, manufacturing, or instruction/warning defects and failures.

I'd be happy to provide anyone in this group with Expert Witness support for product liability and personal injury cases involving manufactured product design defects and failures, manufacturing defects and failures, and/or product usage instructions and warnings defects and failures.

David "Mac" McCracken
Manufacturing Assurance Consultants, Inc.
International Supplier Quality Consultants, Inc.
Verizon iPhone: 412-965-6211

Why Android's Success Makes it a Target for Patent Infringement.


You can read Mr. Halber's and Mr. Keith's article at 




"Eric Halber is a patent attorney with over 20 years of litigation experience. He has worked with, and consulted for, IEC&A in the areas of pre-suit investigation and reverse engineering. Mr. Keith is the owner and founder of IEC & Associates located, in Raleigh, NC. The company is an Electrical and Electronic Investigative Engineering firm specializing in Patent Infringement Analysis, Claim Chart Mapping, Reverse Engineering and Product Teardowns services"




Guidelines for Designing EMI Filters

I am currently designing an EMI filter. If interested, you can review some of the information I have collected at

Reading and Understanding Patent Claims by John Dries

Informative article on reading and understanding patent claims by John Dries .  If interested, you can find more information at


Effective_System_Grounding_White Paper

Great white paper effective system grounding from DeDad Consulting. If you would like to view it please go to .

SEO in Practice: The 1st practical guide to Google domination

SEO in Practice: the 1st practical guide to Google domination

Awesome free guide writtne by Dan Richmond at If you would like to view it please go to view the guide. 

Reflective Radiant Barriers:: Good for Energy Savings

Reflective Radiant Barriers: Good for Energy Savings – Bad for Fire Safety.

Interesting article posted by NAFI and presented by R. Simmon, E. Benstock, N. Camara on fire safety of reflective radiant barriers. Important issues to consider before you install it. Please go to view the article.


Mr. Eric Halber ( IP Litigation Enforcement Attorney) joins our consulting team.

IEC & Associates are pleased to announce that Mr. Eric Halber (IP Litigation Enforcement Attorney) has joined out consulting team  Mr. Halber has over 20 years of litigation and intellectual property experience with top law firms and Fortune 500 companies.  Lead trial counsel for over 50 commercial and intellectual property lawsuits.  Has effectively prosecuted hundreds of commercial electronics-related patents.  Degrees from Tulane Law School, the New England School of Law and Lafayette College.  IP enforcement management represents the single most important aspect for effectively monetizing IP assets.  A failure to properly manage an IP enforcement effort can result in either an outright loss or leaving millions of dollars on the table at the end of the day.


Power Supply Tech Guide

I am currently researching and reviewing power supply design techniques and technology. If interested, you can review some of the information I have collected at

”Top 10 Winning Qualities of Consultants”

This was recently posted in the Consultancy Blog of the Professional Engineer Society by Mr. James Khalil, PE.  It is wonderful wisdom for our industry and a great personal motivator for me so I am re-posting it. IEC  & Associates is committed to implementing and practicing these principals on all of our projects.

If interested, you can review it at our website at or view it directly at

"Capacitor Failure Mechanisms"

"Capacitor Failure Mechanisms"

I am currently researching and reviewing capacitor failure mechanisms. If interested, you can review some of the information I have collected at


" Useful EMC Formulas & Equations"

" Useful EMC Formulas & Equations"

Please check out the list at

“Immunity Testing For The CE Mark“

Informative article on the basic testing requirements and descriptions regarding Immunity testing and for the CE Mark.  If interested, you can find more information at

Revisiting "Electric Permittivity and Magnetic Permeability"

"Electric Permittivity and Magnetic Permeability"

Over the weekend, I was reading my son's SPS Observer “The Magazine of the Society of Physics Students” and came across a wonderful article by Dr. Dwight E. Neuenschwander regarding Electric Permittivity and Magnetic Permeability. In my opinion, it is eloquently written and presented very well.  It is a great mental refresh and if you have a few minutes, I highly recommend it to all of you. Please go to view the article.

"Tutorial - Understanding The PCB Laminate and Prepreg Process"

"Tutorial - Understanding The PCB Laminate and Prepreg Process"

For those who would like a basic understanding on how Printed Circuit Boards are made using laminates and prepregs, I would highly recommend that you review this presentation. Please go to view the presentation.

Snapshot of PEVs (Plug-In_Vehicles) Technology and Markets

"2011 Snapshot of PEVs (Plug-In_Vehicles) Technology and Markets"

Great presentation on the current status of PEV Technologies, Markets, Challenges and Future Trends. Please go to my technolgy upadte page at to view the presentation.

"Solving ESD problems with RF Absorbing Materials"

"Solving ESD problems with RF Absorbing Materials"


I just resolved a nightmare ESD problem using Arctech's WAVE-X material. A +/- 8Kv ESD pulse was causing major conducted noise problems with the on board processor. It worked perfectly! I would highly recommend you consider using their RF absorbing products. To learn more visit their website at